Top Frameworks for end-to-end testing

Technology has given us an exciting array of new tools for testing. This needs to be clarified for businesses trying to figure out which testing tools to use. Eliminating bugs and defects is one of the most essential stages of development. It can make or break your application.

End-to-end testing is crucial, and a framework should be created to facilitate it. Frameworks provide standard operating procedures, create consistency and enforce quality in end-to-end testing. Most of the frameworks used in testing have the same purpose, but they function differently and in different ways. 

This blog looks at the top frameworks for end-to-end testing and how they can help you better test your applications. Let’s look at the popular ones available.

What is end-to-end testing?

End-to-end testing is software testing that verifies the functionality of an entire system from start to finish. End-to-end testing is also known as black box testing. End-to-end tests are typically used to test complex, integrated systems.

For example, consider a simple e-commerce system that consists of a shopping cart, payment gateway, and shipping service. An end-to-end test for this system would verify the following:

  • The user can add items to their shopping cart.
  • The user can checkout and pay for their items.
  • The items are shipped to the correct address.

It is important to note that end-to-end tests do not replace the unit or lower-level tests. Instead, they should be used in addition to these other tests to verify the system’s overall functionality.

Many tools are available to help with end-to-end testing, including Selenium, WebDriver, and Protractor. These tools can be used to automate the execution of tests and provide a way to verify the functionality of an entire system from the perspective of the user.

In addition to automated tools, there are also manual end-to-end testing techniques that can be used. For example, a tester could manually go through the steps of adding items to a shopping cart. This type of testing can be helpful in cases where it is impossible to automate the test or where manual verification is needed in addition to automated confirmation.

To create a practical end-to-end test, it is essential to clearly understand the system under test and how it will be used. Once this understanding is in place, the tester can identify the critical scenarios that should be included in the test. These scenarios should cover all system functionality aspects from start to finish.

Executing an end-to-end test can be time-consuming and resource-intensive, as it typically requires multiple test environments and data sets. For this reason, it is essential to carefully select the scenarios that will be included in the test. The goal should be to create a comprehensive test that will exercise all aspects of the system’s functionality while also being achievable within the available time and resources.

One example of an end-to-end test would be testing an e-commerce system. This would involve creating scenarios that cover all aspects of the system’s functionality, from adding items to a shopping cart to checking out and making a payment. Another example would be testing a messaging system. This would involve creating scenarios that cover all aspects of the system’s functionality, from creating a new message to sending it and receiving a response.

In general, end-to-end tests should be designed to mimic real-world usage scenarios as closely as possible. This means they should exercise the system’s functionality from start to finish and include any necessary setup and cleanup steps. 

End-to-end tests can be used to catch errors that may not be apparent when individual components are tested in isolation. They can also provide confidence that the system as whole works as expected. However, end-to-end tests can be time-consuming and challenging to maintain, so it is vital to strike a balance between covering all relevant scenarios and keeping the test suite manageable.

One way to reduce the scope of an end-to-end test is to focus on essential user journeys through the system. For example, in an e-commerce system, the critical user journeys might be adding items to a shopping cart, checking out, browsing products, and adding them to a wishlist. By focusing on these vital scenarios, we can provide confidence that the system works as expected for the most critical use cases without testing every possible permutation.

Another way to reduce the scope of end-to-end tests is only to test the functionality that is critical to the user experience. For example, in an e-commerce system, the checkout process might be tested in detail, while the search functionality might only be tested at a high level. This approach can be combined with a focus on essential user journeys to reduce the scope of the end-to-end tests.

In some cases, it is also possible to use mocking or stubbing to simulate parts of the system that are out of scope for the end-to-end tests. For example, suppose an e-commerce system is integrated with a third-party payment provider. In that case, it might be possible to mock out the payment provider so that tests can be run without making any payments. This can be useful for reducing the cost and complexity of running end-to-end tests while still providing good coverage of the critical user journeys.

Examples of end-to-end tests might include:

  • Testing the checkout process in an e-commerce system
  • Testing the sign-up process for a new user
  • Testing the search functionality in a search engine
  • Testing the submission and approval process for a recent article on a website

End-to-end tests are essential to any software development process as they help ensure the system functions correctly. They can also be used to identify integration issues between different parts of the system. However, end-to-end tests can be expensive and time-consuming, so it is essential to consider which user journeys are most important to test carefully. By taking the time to create and execute these tests, developers can save time and money by catching the bugs earlier.

Top Frameworks for end-to-end testing

Many frameworks can be leveraged for end-to-end testing, each with its benefits and drawbacks. Here are some of the most popular options:

  • TestCafe

TestCafe is a relatively new entrant into the end-to-end testing arena, but it has already gained much popularity due to its straightforward approach. TestCafe is a Node.js-based end-to-end testing framework that can be used for testing web applications. 

TestCafe tests are written in JavaScript and can be run in any modern browser. One of the main advantages of TestCafe is its speed; tests run very quickly and can even be run in parallel on multiple browsers simultaneously. Another advantage is that TestCafe can automatically take screenshots if a test fails, which can be very helpful for debugging.

  • WebdriverIO

WebdriverIO is another popular end-to-end testing framework that uses JavaScript as its scripting language. It’s a Node.js module, which can be used with any testing framework and bundled with any application. It’s also open-source, so it’s free to use. Like TestCafe, WebdriverIO tests can be run in any modern browser. 

One of the main advantages of WebdriverIO is its flexibility; it can be used with a wide variety of test runners, assertion libraries, and reporter tools.

WebdriverIO is easy to use and has many features, making it a popular choice for end-to-end testing. It supports all major browsers and can be used to test web applications, mobile applications, and even APIs.

To use WebdriverIO, you need to install it using npm:

npm install webdriverio

Once installed, you can create a new file and start writing your tests. Here’s a simple example:

var webdriverio = require(‘webdriverio’);

var options = {

desiredCapabilities: {

     browserName: ‘chrome’







.getTitle().then(function(title) {

     console.log(‘Title is: ‘ + title);



  • Jest

Jest is a JavaScript testing framework designed to be used with React applications. However, it can also be used for testing any type of JavaScript code. Jest tests are written in JavaScript and run using the Jest command-line tool. 

One of the main advantages of Jest is its speed; tests run very quickly, and they can even be run in parallel on multiple processors. Another advantage is that Jest can automatically take snapshots of your components during testing, which can be very helpful for debugging.

  • Mocha

Mocha is a JavaScript testing framework that can be used for testing any type of JavaScript code. Mocha tests are written in JavaScript and run using the Mocha command-line tool. Mocha has several advantages, including its speed, flexibility, and ease of use. Mocha tests can also be run in parallel on multiple processors.

Mocha is easy to use and provides a concise and flexible API. Mocha tests run serially, allowing for accurate and flexible reporting while mapping uncaught exceptions to the correct test cases. Mocha has many features, making it an excellent choice for testing JavaScript code. 

For example, Mocha supports using any assertion library, making it easy to use your favorite assertions. Mocha also has a built-in test reporter that can generate reports in various formats, making it easy to integrate with your CI/CD pipeline.

  • Selenium

Selenium is one of the top widely used end-to-end testing frameworks. It is open source and has excellent documentation. Selenium can test web, mobile, and desktop applications on various platforms, including Windows, Linux, and macOS. However, Selenium can be challenging for complex applications and is only sometimes reliable.

Selenium supports a wide range of features, including data-driven testing, automated testing, and performance testing. Selenium is often used with other tools, such as JUnit or TestNG, to provide a complete end-to-end testing solution.

  • Protractor

Protractor is an end-to-end testing framework for AngularJS applications. It is open source and has excellent documentation. The protractor is easy to use and is very reliable. 

Protractor runs tests against the application running on a browser, interacting with it as a user would. The Protractor drives the application through the browser like an average user would and interacts with the application via Angular’s TestBed. It is designed to test applications written with AngularJS but can also test any website or web application written in general.

For example, a test might check if a user can successfully log in to an AngularJS application. To do this, the test would interact with the login form, enter the username and password, and then check if the user is redirected to the browser’s home page.

Protractor uses the robust AngularJS framework and the WebDriver API to create tests that automate your application like a user.

  • TestNG

TestNG is a Java testing framework that can automate both unit and end-to-end tests. TestNG is similar to JUnit but offers a more flexible testing model and supports a broader range of features.

For example, you could use TestNG to automatically run all of your unit tests when your code changes or to run all of your end-to-end tests before each release. 

TestNG is also easily integrated with other tools and frameworks, such as Jenkins or Selenium. In short, TestNG makes it easier and faster to get your tests up and running and to keep them running as your code changes.

TestNG is very versatile and can be used to test various applications. It has many features that make it a potent testing tool. TestNG can also be used to run tests in parallel, which can save time when testing an extensive application.

  • JMeter

JMeter is a load and performance testing tool. It can be used to test the performance of web applications and web services. JMeter supports a wide range of features, including data-driven testing, automated testing, and load testing.

For example, JMeter can test a web application’s performance by simulating multiple users accessing the application simultaneously. By monitoring the application’s response time under load, JMeter can help identify performance bottlenecks.

  • Maven

Maven is an end-to-end testing tool for Java applications that helps manage dependencies and can automate various tasks, such as building and testing. For example, it can create a directory structure for a project, compile source code, and package the compiled code into a jar file.

Maven supports many features, including dependency management, automated testing, and continuous integration.

End-to-end testing is one type of test that can be performed with Maven. This type of test checks that the system under test behaves as expected from start to finish. For example, an end-to-end test for a web application might check that a user can successfully add items to their shopping cart, login, and checkout.

Maven can also be used for other types of tests, such as unit tests (which test individual components) and integration tests (which test how elements work together). In addition to testing, We can also use Maven to manage other aspects of a Java project, such as building and packaging the code.

  • Gradle

Gradle is a build tool for Java applications that automates many tasks involved in end-to-end testing, including compiling and packaging code, running tests, and deploying applications. For example, it can compile and run your code, generate test reports, and package your application for deployment. In addition, Gradle provides many plugins to help with everyday testing tasks, such as creating test fixtures and running test suites. 

One of the benefits of using Gradle is that it can reduce the amount of boilerplate code required to build an application. For example, when compiling code, Gradle can automatically handle tasks such as creating directories, copying files, etc. This can save a lot of time and effort for developers.

With Gradle, you can easily create an end-to-end testing pipeline on your development machine or a Continuous Integration server. This can save you much time and effort compared to manual testing processes. In addition, Gradle makes it easy to share your testing configuration with other team members so that everyone can use the same settings and tools. This helps ensure that your tests are consistent and reliable.

In addition, Gradle is highly customizable and can be used to create custom-build processes. It also integrates with several popular development tools, such as Eclipse and IntelliJ IDE.

  • LambdaTest

LambdaTest is an online platform available in the market for an end to end testing. It is a cloud-based cross-browser testing platform where you can test your websites and web apps across 3000+ browser OS combinations. 

Running End to End tests at LambdaTest

Software testing is a critical thing, right? It’s the whole point of why we’re even doing this software business. We need to test the software to make sure it works. But, as you know, it sucks to test. So then everyone puts it off.

Your customers don’t care if your software works, right? So if you had an easy way to get 100% coverage of all your application’s features. Wouldn’t you take full advantage of that?

LambdaTest is a blindingly fast cross-browser testing platform that allows developers to test their products on all major browsers quickly within seconds. Using the LambdaTest API, you can run tests in any programming language. Your code sends commands from your CI/CD to execute inside the LambdaTest platform.

LambdaTest gives you instant access to over 3000+ browsers and real devices through their cloud automation testing platform so you can quickly test and monitor your mobile apps and websites. LambdaTest gives you a clear picture of what users are doing and why, so you can eliminate bugs and build better software.

After you have registered and logged in to your account, you can start running end to end tests on website and web application tests on the LambdaTest platform by following these simple steps:

  1. In the menu on the left, navigate to the Real Time Testing section. 
  2. Provide the website URL into the Real-Time Testing for testing. Choose the BRAND, DEVICE/OS, and BROWSER for mobile devices.
  3. After selecting it, click START. Now, You can launch your website using the required configuration. 
  4. Once the website has launched, you can access various functions, including video recording a test session, capturing screenshots, and logging bugs with a single click.

Testing traditional cross-browser software is very complex, time-consuming, and expensive. LambdaTest saves you time and money. Instead of spending hours testing each browser separately, LambdaTest can help you test ALL browsers simultaneously – on real devices or virtual simulators. LambdaTest is the easiest and most cost-effective way to get more out of your testing budget.


We know it is tough to be a software developer or a tester. You work hard but always feel you will need to work harder to get better results. That’s why there’s never enough time to test everything, and it seems you’re doing the same work repeatedly.

We have written this blog to help software testers understand why they need to use end-to-end testing frameworks and explain their functionalities and areas of use. It is to help them understand why they need to use end-to-end testing frameworks. It is to help them know how to pick the right tool. 

With this knowledge, you can make the most of your QA resources and develop more efficient checks using end-to-end testing tools like LambdaTest. So what are you waiting for? You should try out LambdaTest and test your software!